By Virginia H. Dale, Frederick J. Swanson, Charles M. Crisafulli, J.F. Franklin
The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens prompted tragic demise and estate, but additionally created a distinct chance to check a tremendous disturbance of common platforms and their next responses. This ebook synthesizes 25 years of ecological examine into of volcanic job, and indicates what truly occurs while a volcano erupts, what the fast and long term hazards are, and the way lifestyles reasserts itself within the atmosphere.
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Additional resources for Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens
Volcanic activity can greatly increase or decrease the rates of geomorphic processes that occur independently of volcanic inﬂuence. During the Pleistocene (10,000 to 1,600,000 years before present), glaciers sculpted upper-elevation landforms in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens, creating very steep cliffs and cirques on north-facing slopes and broad, U-shaped valleys draining areas of extensive ice cover, such as the Mount Margaret high country about 15 km north-northeast of Mount St. Helens. Throughout the Holocene (the past 10,000 years), glaciers remained prominent features of most large Cascade Range volcanoes.
Despite the history of frequent, severe disturbance in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens, these species and ecological systems have been very persistent for a variety of reasons. The complex terrain and diversity of microhabitats leaves many refuges after severe disturbance by ﬁre, volcanic, or other processes. The wetness of the landscape, including areas with persistent snow cover, can buffer ecological systems from some types of disturbance. Another key factor is that the deposits originating from Mount St.
Dense coniferous forest canopies intercepted sunlight and limited primary productivity within these headwater systems. Thus, food webs were largely driven by organic matter entering streams from adjacent forests. The steep, straight tributary streams plunged rapidly down slope and entered larger, lowergradient streams that ﬂowed through broad, U-shaped valleys, such as Clearwater Creek and Green River valleys. Localized ﬂoodplains along these larger streams provided room for some channel meandering and formation of secondary channels.
Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens by Virginia H. Dale, Frederick J. Swanson, Charles M. Crisafulli, J.F. Franklin