By Martin Heidegger
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Additional resources for Die Metaphysik des deutschen Idealismus
Why do we drive on the right? Why do we eat with knives and forks? Or, for that matter, why do we adopt certain religious beliefs and practices rather than others? Is it simply a matter of where and to whom we were born? While it is true that there are a variety of differences across the globe, including vast religious differences, the cosmopolitan perspective holds that certain ethical principles are universally valuable, such as respect for life and for liberty. In the Western world, we have institutionalized these ideas in the laws of the modern nation state.
An analytical study, temporarily letting us see our issues in a neutral perspective, is needed to provide us with something rather more than this sort of half-knowledge—doing so not by attempting to give further support to some given conclusion, but rather by pointing out what general kind of support is possible. An unanalyzed half-knowledge may have one of two effects. It may lead us to an illusory conviction of having said the last word on a normative issue, this conviction being attended by a contempt for those who fail to see the “obvious cogency” of our arguments.
A version of this concern led Kant to postulate God and immortality as necessary for morality—so that we might at least hope that moral actions would be rewarded (and immoral actions would be punished) in an afterlife. In response, atheists might argue that the demands, rewards, and punishments of human social life are sufficient to provide motivation to be ethical. We turn to the issue of motivation in our discussion of egoism in Chapter 4. In that chapter, we consider a story from Plato about Gyges, a man who can literally get away with murder.
Die Metaphysik des deutschen Idealismus by Martin Heidegger