By Andre G. Frank
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Additional info for Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment
534) Elsewhere Smith observes additionally, in the disposal of their surplus produce, or what is over and above their own consumption, the English colonies have been favoured, and have been allowed a more extensive market [and, one may add, to invest the domestic productive and international trade surplus in their own development], than those of any other European nation. Every European nation has endeavoured more or less to monopolize to itself the commerce of its colonies ... but the manner in which this monopoly has been exercized m different nations has been very different.
The multilateral financing of trade was already important. In general, Britain used a large surplus with Western Europe to pay for her deficits elsewhere. The size of these indirect settlements was due in part to the re-export trade, but even if re-exports are omitted the pattern remains the same in its basic essentials . . the importance of the Portuguese trade (in the mid eighteenth century when Brazil became a major gold supplier) should not be underestimated. It contributed towards the establishment of London as the world's bullion market, and these same bullion supplies provided the essential link in the chain by which Britain expanded trade with the East and purchased military supplies in the North ...
In the last resort, the factor which produced capitalism is the rational permanent enterprise, rational accounting, rational technology, and rational law, but again not these alone. Necessary complementary factors were the rational spirit, the rationalization of the conduct of life in general, and a rationalistic economic ethic ... Two main types of exploitation are met with: the feudal type in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, the capitalistic in the Dutch and English ... A religious motive also played a part in the shape of the traditional repugnance of the Puritans to feudalism of any sort.
Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment by Andre G. Frank