By R.J. Knipe, E.H. Rutter
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Extra info for Deformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics (Geological Society Special Publication 54)
D O E Contract DE-AC04-76DP0079. & ZEUCH, D. H. 1986. Modelling and mechanistic interpretation of creep of rocksalt below 200°C. Tectonophysics, 121, 125-152. WEI~DING, B. & KLnN, M. V. 1969. Infrared absorption of the hydroxyl ion in alkali halide crystals. Physical Reviews, 177, 1274-1288. WmrHAM, W. & CALDERWOOD, J. H. 1975. Oxygen impurity complexes in sodium chloride crystals. - Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 8, 1305-1310. Wm~E, J. C. &WHITE S. H. 1983. Semi-brittle deformation within the Alpine fault zone, New Zealand.
1985). 70 km southwest of the San Andreas fault; Gulf Coast average trend presented for reference. Fluid pressure and fault stability within seismogenic crust The seismogenic regime occupies the upper part of deforming continental crust and appears to represent the zone of unstable frictional sliding. Background microearthquake activity extends to depths of 10-15 km in regions of moderate to high heat flow (60-100 mW m 2), but deepens significantly in regions of rapid thrust convergence (> 10 mm a -1) such as the thrust-front of the Himalaya.
0 (3 3 ~I EQ EQ i i lithostatic ...... hydrostatic. . . TIME / •. / EQ EQ EQ i i i hydrostatic . . . TIME Fig. 6. Examples of vein systems attributable to fault-valve behaviour. (a) Favourably oriented faults: (i) section through North Star and subsidiary A u - q u a r t z lodes occupying a set of conjugate thrust faults, Grass Valley, California (after Johnston 1940); (ii) Mohr diagram illustrating stress conditions at failure and postfailure; (iii) fluid pressure cycles inferred to accompany successive earthquake (EQ) ruptures, (b) Unfavourabty oriented faults: (i) section through A u - q u a r t z lodes hosted by a system of high-angle reverse faults and associated extension fractures (0r~70°), Sigma Mine, Val d'Or, Quebec (after Robert & Brown 1986); (ii) Mohr diagram illustrating stress condition which allows reactivation of a severely misoriented fault without causing failure of surrounding intact rock; (iii) resultant fluid pressure cycling accompanying successive earthquake (EQ) ruptures.
Deformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics (Geological Society Special Publication 54) by R.J. Knipe, E.H. Rutter