By W. C. Hayes (auth.), Hans K. Uhthoff M.D.,FRCS (C) (eds.)
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Extra info for Current Concepts of Bone Fragility
3. Graph of the change in cross-sectional area of the ulna midshaft of bones similar to those in Figs. 1 and 2. The percentage change in area is based on the postmortem comparison between the area of left (experimental) and right (intact) bones after an eight week per iod subjected to a load regimen selected to produce different peak strains. 004 with a progressive increase (functional hypertrophy) • (Rubin and Lanyon, 1983) loss. Above this level, it was positively balanced and resulted in bone gain.
This effect appears to be reduced by estrogen, and we propose also by physical activity involving appropriate (or optimal) strains. When stimu- 31 lation of resorptive remodelling units does occur, one of the influences normally tending to maintain the remodelling balance is the release of matrix-bound coupling factors which stimulate osteoblastic activity. Naturally, there is a deficit between the amount of bone that these factors stimulate and the amount of bone originally removed; otherwise bone mass could never be reduced.
Thus, the development of bone structure is closely associated with that of the whole locomotor system, including the sites of tendon and muscle insertions on bone surfaces and of the bone marrow eavity within. These anatomie relations inseribed in the genome determine the mechanieal loads to whieh the skeleton becomes subjected when assuming weight bearing and physical aetivity against gravity. In that sense, therefore, the strueture of bones whieh evolved during phylogeny of a given species is predetermined.
Current Concepts of Bone Fragility by W. C. Hayes (auth.), Hans K. Uhthoff M.D.,FRCS (C) (eds.)