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By Thomas Turner

ISBN-10: 0745648436

ISBN-13: 9780745648439

The Democratic Republic of Congo has develop into one of many world's bloodiest scorching spots. 2003 observed the tip of a five-year battle within which hundreds of thousands misplaced their lives - one of many deadliest conflicts due to the fact that international conflict II. regardless of fresh peace agreements and democratic elections, the rustic continues to be stricken by military and defense force violence. Congo continues to be deeply stricken, because the deep-rooted reasons of clash haven't been competently addressed.

The clash within the DRC has divided opinion; a few name it a civil warfare, or a conflict of aggression by means of the country's neighbours; others a continuation of Rwanda's Hutu-Tutsi clash on Congolose soil, and a battle of partition and pillage. the superiority of rape and sexual violence has led a few analysts to mark it out as a hidden ‘war opposed to women'. Tom Turner's insightful e-book unearths how each one of those descriptions appropriately captures the separate parts of this complicated and multidimensional political clash. In exploring each one of those contributory components, he indicates how present makes an attempt to rebuild the shattered nation and society of DRC are doomed to fail. as long as the complete complexity of the Congo trouble isn't taken into consideration and a transparent consensus as to its unique dimensions reached, the long run appears to be like bleak. The DRC, he argues, will most probably stay an international scorching spot for a few time to come.

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Not coincidentally, the entire Congo–Angola border was included in the Kabila zone. 5 Efforts to end “Africa’s world war” began almost as soon as the war itself. Angola, DRC, Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe signed a cease-fire agreement in Lusaka (Zambia) in 1999, and a UN observer force was approved, but fighting continued. President Laurent Kabila was in no hurry to accept a situation that placed him at a disadvantage. However, with his assassination in 2001 and his replacement by Joseph Kabila, the movement toward peace was facilitated.

Its troops, the “Simba” (Lions, in Swahili), were initiated into service, and given both “medicine” to protect them against bullets and a list of commandments they had to follow to preserve the magical protection. In particular, the Simba were to abstain from sexual relations and from stealing. Reliance on magic, however, left them vulnerable when meeting resistance from local self-protection forces believed to possess possibly superior magic, or from Europeans. 13 The inconclusive struggle for democracy at the beginning of the 1990s exposed the weakness of Mobutu’s Zaïre.

The Structure of This Book In subsequent chapters we will explore in greater depth some questions raised here. In Chapters 1 and 2, the question of the nature of the wars going on in DRC will be dealt with through consideration of the roles of major actors, both extra-continental and African. This will provide an opportunity to consider whether extra-continental actors are acting in DRC through proxies: that is, African states or movements 12 INTRODUCTION: CONGO, A PERENNIAL HOT SPOT that they finance and control.

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Congo by Thomas Turner


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