By Jan Mewis, Norman J. Wagner
"Colloidal suspensions are encountered in a mess of normal, organic, and industrially correct items and methods. figuring out what impacts the move habit, or rheology, of colloid debris, and the way those suspensions will be manipulated, is critical for profitable formula of goods comparable to paint, polymers, meals, and harmaceuticals. This ebook is the 1st dedicated to the examine of colloidal rheology in all its elements. With fabric awarded in an introductory demeanour, and complicated mathematical derivations stored to a minimal, the reader will achieve a robust take hold of of the fundamental ideas of colloid technology and rheology. starting with only hydrodynamic results, the contributions of Brownian movement and interparticle forces are lined, sooner than the reader is guided via particular areas of difficulty corresponding to thixotropy and shear thickening; precise periods of colloid suspensions also are taken care of. a necessary consultant for educational and business researchers, this ebook can also be excellent for graduate direction use"-- learn more... 1. advent to colloid technological know-how and rheology -- 2. Hydrodynamic results -- three. Brownian challenging spheres -- four. sturdy colloidal suspensions -- five. Non-spherical debris -- 6. Weakly flocculated suspensions -- 7. Thixotropy -- eight. Shear thickening -- nine. Rheometry of suspensions -- 10. Suspensions in viscoelastic media -- eleven. complex themes
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Additional resources for Colloidal suspension rheology
It should be pointed out that the viscoelastic nature of a material normally depends on frequency. Viscoelastic fluids tend to become more elastic at higher frequencies and more viscous at lower ones. Instead of using the strain as a reference to express the stresses and phase angles, one could also start from an oscillatory strain rate. A viscoelastic material can then be described by a generalization of the viscosity rather than of the modulus. The result is a complex viscosity ∗ , similar to the complex modulus G∗ .
In a viscoelastic material the stress would gradually decay in time, a phenomenon called stress relaxation. If the viscoelastic material is a solid, the stress would relax only partially and would level off at a finite value. In viscoelastic liquids the stress would relax to zero. , when the particles are dispersed in a polymer melt or a polymer solution (see Chapter 10). In specific tests on colloidal dispersions, however, some elastic effects can often be detected. They provide a powerful tool to investigate certain aspects of colloidal behavior.
The larger the dimensionless group a, the thinner the double layer. Some brief comments about the effect of ion type on electrostatic interactions are of value. 10) shows that the screening length depends on the square of the ion valence (zi ) but only the first power of the solution concentration of ions (ni,∞ ). Therefore, divalent ions, such as Ca2+ , are much more effective in screening the electrostatic potential around particles. Multivalent counterions are also much more readily adsorbed in the Stern layer and can even lead to charge reversal, as when using trivalent alumina ions to create cationic (positively) charged silica particles at low pH .
Colloidal suspension rheology by Jan Mewis, Norman J. Wagner