By Alexander N. Sencha, Elena V. Evseeva, Mikhail S. Mogutov, Yury N. Patrunov
This e-book is a perfect guide at the use of contemporary ultrasound within the prognosis of breast pathology. It presents a finished review of present ultrasound recommendations and explains the benefits and pitfalls of assorted ultrasound imaging modalities. particular awareness is dedicated to breast carcinoma, with assistance on differential analysis and presentation of pre- and postoperative ultrasound appearances. crucial benign breast illnesses also are defined and illustrated. Age-related gains, together with these noticeable in youngsters and children, are rigorously analyzed, and anyone bankruptcy is dedicated to breast abnormalities in males. All points of lymph node appearances are reviewed intimately, with a distinct concentrate on the position of ultrasound within the review of lymph node prestige. Ultrasound-guided breast interventions and imaging of breast implants are mentioned extensive. This up to date and richly illustrated e-book will curiosity and help experts in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, oncologists, and surgeons.
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Additional info for Breast Ultrasound
They surround adipose lobules and can produce lateral acoustic shadows, hence imitate breast lesions. The structure of Cooper’s ligaments becomes denser with aging with more expressed acoustic shadows. Differentiation of such areas from breast pathology is possible with polypositional examination. The image of lactiferous ducts depends on patient’s age, the phase of menstrual cycle, and the frequency of US probe. 5 MHz probe in the first phase of menstrual cycle normally detects terminal and interlobar ducts smaller than 2 mm in caliber or fails to differentiate them.
The probe is positioned perpendicularly to the breast skin. The compression should be limited. While describing the location of pathological process, the breast is conventionally divided into four quadrants: upper(superior)-outer(lateral), upper(superior)-inner(medial), lower(inferior)inner(medial), and lower(inferior)-outer(lateral). Subareolar area (central portion) and the nipple are mentioned separately. The terminology of “clock positions” is appropriate as additional subsite descriptor to indicate the exact location of abnormality (Fig.
Alternatively, there are mistakes, when breast lesions are interpreted for lymph nodes. The conclusion of breast lesion is only permitted in the case of its clear demonstration at least in two perpendicular projections. Correct diagnosis sometimes requires long follow-up or application of other diagnostic methods. Auxiliary methods, such as lifting of patient’s arms, turns of the body to one or another side, and change of body position, are important for differential diagnosis. Following the methodology of the examination is extremely valuable.
Breast Ultrasound by Alexander N. Sencha, Elena V. Evseeva, Mikhail S. Mogutov, Yury N. Patrunov