New PDF release: Beyond the nanoworld : quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons

By Hans Günter Dosch

ISBN-10: 1439865213

ISBN-13: 9781439865217

ISBN-10: 1568813457

ISBN-13: 9781568813455

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If the gas is absolutely pure, no small droplets can form, since they would evaporate immediately. Since all droplets have to start small, no droplets are formed at all. However, the electric charge of an ion attracts water molecules, which can lead in a supersaturated vapor to the formation of droplets, since the attractive electric force prohibits immediate evaporation. Therefore, ions form seeds for the condensation of water droplets. This process had been investigated theoretically by Thomson, and he derived the relevant formulas.

4. Quantum Physics Becomes Decisive 39 source of error comes into the mix through this probabilistic nature of quantum physics. These errors are called statistical errors, about which nothing can be done other than an extended series of measurements—under certain circumstances too long to be feasible. In some cases the probability for a certain event that is predicted by quantum mechanics is either zero or one. Then there is, of course, no uncertainty. But in many cases this is not the case. A good example is the lifetime of an unstable state, such as an excited atom, an excited nucleus, or an unstable elementary particle.

However, the Dirac equation posed a tremendous problem that is closely related to the two possible signs of the energy mentioned above. It predicted states with negative energy: for each state with positive energy there existed a corresponding state with an energy of the same magnitude but opposite sign. I. E. Tamm and I. Waller showed independently that these negative states are indeed necessary if one is to obtain (in the limit) Thomson’s well-known classical result from the results of Klein and Nishina, that is, by considering photons with long wavelengths.

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Beyond the nanoworld : quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons by Hans Günter Dosch


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