By Carlo M. Cipolla
During this vintage paintings Cipolla explores the sluggish yet complicated means of improvement that remodeled Europe from its quite vulnerable place in advert one thousand into the hugely dynamic and robust society of 1700.
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Extra resources for Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700
Worst of all, fiscal privileges also forced the public power to turn to indirect taxation, which fell heavily on the consumption of necessities. Consequently the fiscal burden hit the poor proportionally harder, which in turn explains the complaints, protests, and lamentations mentioned above. 85 As has been said above, given the size of public revenues and the structure of pricing, the level and structure of public demand depend on the wants of the public powers and the community they control or represent.
Very often, however, citizens forced to loan money to the Commune later found themselves short of cash, having invested their wealth in property or in merchandise. They might then be prepared to waive their credit to the Commune to another citizen for an amount of money smaller than the sum originally lent. They would thereby incur a straight loss, whereas citizens who had plenty of ready cash could indulge in lucrative speculation. 30 BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Public debt was developed furthest in Genoa, Venice, and Florence.
85 As has been said above, given the size of public revenues and the structure of pricing, the level and structure of public demand depend on the wants of the public powers and the community they control or represent. In preindustrial Europe the wants that counted were, of course, the wants of those in power. These wants were generally related to war and defense, civil administration, court life, and festivities. Publicly organized feasts had both a practical purpose and a symbolic value. 86 At the same time, they were intended to represent symbolically a certain sharing of interests and sentiments between the people and the prince—thus the festive celebrations after a military victory, the birth of an heir, the recovery of a prince, and the end of an epidemic.
Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700 by Carlo M. Cipolla