By Dan Green
Too usually descriptions of detectors concentrate on the "what" and never the "why". This quantity goals to explain how the necessities of the physics on the huge Hadron Collider (LHC) outline the detector surroundings. In flip, the detector offerings are made to undertake to that surroundings. The target of LHC physics is to discover the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. as a result of minuscule cross-sections which must be explored, 0.1 facebook, the LHC must supply a hundred fb-1/yr, or an immediate luminosity of 1034 / (cm2 sec). With a host crossing period of 25 nsec, like minded to detector speeds, there'll be 25 occasions occupying each one bunch crossing. hence the physics calls for quick, finely segmented, low noise and radiation resistant detectors which offer redundant measurements of the infrequently produced electrons and muons. to accomplish these pursuits, new floor was once damaged in developing the A Toroidal LHC equipment (ATLAS) and Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detectors within the vertex detectors, monitoring platforms, calorimetry, powerful magnets, muon platforms, entrance finish electronics, set off structures, and within the facts acquisition tools used.
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Additional info for At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments
6 million independent strips to record. Note that gaseous tracking detectors can also be used. 12 cm per 25 ns bunch crossing. Therefore, a gaseous tracking system will likely integrate over several bunch crossings in time, thus increasing the occupancy and making the pattern recognition more diﬃcult. The radiation dose scales from the pixel dose as 1/r 2 , which means that the tracker silicon strip detectors suﬀer a far smaller dose than the pixel detectors. In estimating the dose it was assumed that neutral photons are not converted to electron–positron pairs in the tracker material and that the charged pions do not interact to produce multiple charged pions.
5 is required. Indeed, the colored quarks and gluons can always radiate a gluon by the process of “ﬁnal state radiation” (FSR). 1. 5% of the time. Clearly, a limited cone size, if used to estimate the true jet energy, has a limited energy resolution due to ﬂuctuations in the energy radiated outside the cone. A Monte Carlo model of the W hadronic decay into quark pairs which then hadronizes into dijets is given in Fig. 19. Clearly, the FSR of gluons is an irreducible limitation on doing precision dijet spectroscopy in the environment of a hadron collider.
B866-ch02 W. Erdmann Fig. 3. Layout of the CMS pixel detector18 (top). Three barrel layers at radii 4 cm, 7 cm, and 11 cm cover the central region. Two endcap disks at z = 34 cm and z = 46 cm extend the coverage to high rapidity. The region in which tracks are measured with at least two hits in the pixel detector (lower plot) is well matched to the acceptance of the outer tracker of CMS. Two additional layers are placed at radii 7 cm and 11 cm. The full radius of the available volume was not used, in order to limit the total area (and hence cost) while providing three pixel hits per track.
At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments by Dan Green