By Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
Nuclear double beta decay is without doubt one of the so much promising instruments for probing beyond-the-standard-model physics on beyond-accelerator power scales. it truly is already now probing the TeV scale, on which new physics may still present itself based on theoretical expectancies. merely within the early Nineteen Eighties used to be it recognized that double beta decay yields details at the Majorana mass of the exchanged neutrino. at the present, the sharpest sure for the electron neutrino mass arises from this procedure. it is just within the final 10 years that the even more far-reaching strength of double beta decay has been found. at the present time, the potential for double beta decay contains a wide variety of issues which are both proper to particle physics and astrophysics, akin to plenty of heavy neutrinos, of sneutrinos, as SUSY versions, compositeness, leptoquarks, left-right symmetric versions, and assessments of Lorentz symmetry and equivalence precept within the neutrino area. Double beta decay has turn into fundamental these days for fixing the matter of the neutrino mass spectrum and the constitution of the neutrino mass matrix - including current and destiny sun and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. a few destiny double beta experiments (like Genius) could be able to be at the same time neutrino observatories for double beta decay and low-energy sunlight neutrinos, and observatories for chilly darkish subject of final sensitivity. This worthwhile e-book outlines the improvement of double beta study from its beginnings until eventually its most modern achievements, and in addition offers the outlook for its hugely interesting destiny.
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Additional info for 60 Years of Double Beta Decay
Pontecorvo argument underwent some criticism [Hax82a*-I]. A discussion of some other earlier approaches to calculate double beta decay matrix elements can be found in [Huf70], [Hax84**-I], [Ver86], [Gro86a**-II], [Boe87], [Hax93]. The clou to solve these problems was found by K. V. Klapdor in 1984 [Kla84*-II], [Gro86a**-II] who realized that the spin-isospin and quadrupole- 17 18 Sixty Years of Double Beta Decay Fig. 24 The author (standing in left) at the International Conference on Nuclear Structure, in Dubna, USSR, June 1976.
G. [Ver82a], [Hir96*-IV]) or, in principle more precisely, matrix elements of (approximately) four-fermion (four-quark) operators [Heu94], [Min96**-II], [Gre96**-II]. The effect of the latter is severely overestimated by these authors. g. g. about the Yukawa coupling A'm depends only from the square root of the matrix element, and the result about sfermion masses only on the fourth root. All this has been discussed recently in [Hir96*-IV] and [Kla2000g*-II]. Some of the new matrix elements have been calculated only recently [Pae99*-I] in connection with the development of a general Lorentz-invariant parameterization of the long and short range parts of the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in terms of effective B-L couplings, which allows to deduce limits on arbitrary lepton number violating theories from double Sixty Years of Double Beta Decay 24 beta decay [Pae99*-I], [Pae2000**-I].
One of the main driving forces was the occurrence of grand unification theories (GUTs), according to which the electroweak and strong interactions are separate manifestations of a single force, and which allow 'in contrast to the usual standard model for non-vanishing neutrino masses. 1 Origins of Neutrino Masses Already the simplest of GUTsf SU(5)j allows for breaking of baryon number and lepton number conservation, and the simplest left-right symmetric GUT model, SO(10) - introduced in 1975 [EH75], [Geo75] - also for breaMng of B~L} thus allowing for double beta decay.
60 Years of Double Beta Decay by Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus